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|Title:||Hydrogen-treated, sub-micrometer carbon beads for fast capacitive deionization with high performance stability|
|Year of Publication:||2017|
|Publikation type:||Journal Article|
|Abstract:||Novolac is a low-cost carbon precursor which can be used to derive nanoporous carbon beads in sub-micrometer size. In this study, we introduce this material as a novel electrode material for capacitive deionization (CDI) with high performance stability and superior desalination rate. The polymer beads were synthesized employing a self-emulsifying system in an autoclave, pyrolyzed under argon, and activated with CO2, yielding a specific surface area of 1905 m2 g−1 with a high total pore volume of 1.26 cm3 g−1. After CO2 activation, the material shows a salt sorption capacity of ∼8 mg g−1, but the performance is highly influenced by functional groups, causing an inversion peak and fast performance decay. However, de-functionalization via hydrogen treatment is outlined as an effective strategy to improve the CDI performance. After hydrogen treatment of novolac-derived carbon beads, we obtained a salt sorption capacity of 11.5 mg g−1 with a charge efficiency of more than 80% and a performance stability of around 90% over more than 100 cycles. Particularly attractive for practical application is the very high average salt adsorption rate of 0.104 mg g−1 s−1, outperforming commercial activated carbons, which are commonly used for CDI, by at least a factor of two.|
|DOI of the first publication:||10.1016/j.carbon.2017.02.054|
|Link to this record:||hdl:20.500.11880/27999|
|Date of registration:||2-Oct-2019|
|Faculty:||NT - Naturwissenschaftlich- Technische Fakultät|
|Department:||NT - Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik|
|Professorship:||NT - Prof. Dr. Volker Presser|
|Collections:||UniBib – Die Universitätsbibliographie|
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