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|Title:||Does the Effort of Processing Potential Incentives Influence the Adaption of Context Updating in Older Adults?|
Ferdinand, Nicola K.
|Title:||Frontiers in psychology|
|Year of Publication:||2017|
|Publikation type:||Journal Article|
|Abstract:||A number of aging studies suggest that older adults process positive and negative information differently. For instance, the socioemotional selectivity theory postulates that older adults preferably process positive information in service of emotional well-being (Reed and Carstensen, 2012). Moreover, recent research has started to investigate whether incentives like gains or losses can influence cognitive control in an ongoing task. In an earlier study (Schmitt et al., 2015), we examined whether incentive cues, indicating potential monetary gains, losses, or neutral outcomes for good performance in the following trial, would influence older adults' ability to exert cognitive control. Cognitive control was measured in an AX-Continuous-Performance-Task (AX-CPT) in which participants had to select their responses to probe stimuli depending on a preceding context cue. In this study, we did not find support for a positivity effect in older adults, but both gains and losses led to enhanced context processing. As the trial-wise presentation mode may be too demanding on cognitive resources for such a bias to occur, the main goal of the present study was to examine whether motivational mindsets, induced by block-wise presentation of incentives, would result in a positivity effect. For this reason, we examined 17 older participants (65-76 years) in the AX-CPT using a block-wise presentation of incentive cues and compared them to 18 older adults (69-78 years) with the trial-wise presentation mode from our earlier study (Schmitt et al., 2015). Event-related potentials were recorded to the onset of the motivational cue and during the AX-CPT. Our results show that (a) older adults initially process cues signaling potential losses more strongly, but later during the AX-CPT invest more cognitive resources in preparatory processes like context updating in conditions with potential gains, and (b) block-wise and trial-wise presentation of incentive cues differentially influenced cognitive control. When incentives were presented block-wise, the above described valence effects were consistently found. In contrast, when incentives were presented trial-wise, the effects were mixed and salience as well as valence effects can be obtained. Hence, how positive and negative incentive cues influence cognitive control in older adults is dependent on demands of cue processing.|
|DOI of the first publication:||10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01969|
|URL of the first publication:||https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01969/full|
|Link to this record:||hdl:20.500.11880/29513|
|Date of registration:||13-Aug-2020|
|Faculty:||HW - Fakultät für Empirische Humanwissenschaften und Wirtschaftswissenschaft|
|Department:||HW - Psychologie|
|Professorship:||HW - Prof. Dr. Jutta Kray|
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