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|Title:||On the influence of metal alkoxides on the epoxide ring-opening and condensation reactions of 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane|
Schmidt, Helmut K.
|Year of Publication:||2001|
|OPUS Source:||Journal of sol gel science and technology. - 21. 2001, 3, S. 177-187|
|SWD key words:||Alkoholate|
|DDC notations:||620 Engineering and machine engineering|
|Publikation type:||Journal Article|
|Abstract:||The extent of the epoxide ring-opening, the formation of ethyl groups as one reaction product of the ring-opening and the condensation degree of RSi(O0.5)3 units in sols and gels of the system 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTS)-1.5H2O-0.01/0.1/1.0 metal alkoxide [Si(OEt)4, Sn(OBut)4, Al(OBus)3, Al(OEtOBu)3, Ta(OEt)5, Ti(OEt)4, Zr(OBun)4] in ethanol has been examined by means of liquid- and solid-state 13C and 29Si NMR spectroscopies. The results reveal a strong epoxide ring-opening effect of Al-alkoxides in hybrid sols after 24 h reaction time and of Zr-, Ta-, Al- and Sn-alkoxides in corresponding hybrid gels already at low concentration (1 mole%). The ring-opening rate increases in sols with higher metal alkoxide concentration (10 mole%) but decreases at 50 mole% concentration of Al-, Ti- and Zr-alkoxides. The ring-opening activity of metal alkoxides in 10 mole% hybrid sols increases after 24 h reaction time in the order Si(OEt)4 < Ti(OEt)4 < Zr(OBun)4 < Ta(OEt)5, Sn(OBut)4, Al(OBus)3, Al(OEtOBu)3. The 24 h hybrid sols and gels contain considerable amounts (up to 90%) of ethyl ether groups as reaction product of the ring-opening reaction which lowers the formation of polyether bonds. The condensation degree (c.d.) of RSi(O0.5)3 units of GPTS-1.5H2O sols with 10 mole% of metal alkoxides increases up to 80% after 7 h reaction time in the order: Si(OEt)4 << Sn(OBut)4 < Zr(OBun)4 < Al(OBus)3 < Al(OEtOBu)3 < Ta(OEt)5 < Ti(OEt)4. An additional increase in c.d. up to 90% follows after the thermal sol-gel transformation. Generally, maximum activity of metal alkoxides in ring-opening and condensation reactions was found in sols and gels with 10 mole% additives. The effect of water on the epoxide ring-opening and on c.d. is discussed. Furthermore, the activity of metal alkoxides is compared with corresponding nanoscaled metal oxides.|
|Link to this record:||urn:nbn:de:bsz:291-scidok-30106|
|Date of registration:||15-Oct-2010|
|Faculty:||SE - Sonstige Einrichtungen|
|Department:||SE - INM Leibniz-Institut für Neue Materialien|
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